Explore part of Italy, the land that once was at the heart of one of the greatest empires of the world. You can focus on the effects of volcanic activity in the past and present; looking at one or all of the volcanoes of Vesuvius, Stromboli, Vulcano and Etna. Using experienced guides you can climb Stromboli to watch an eruption as dark descends, or reach near the top of Etna at 3,350m (using a cable car and 4×4). Alternatively you can taste the cultures of Italy both past and present by also visiting Rome with its amazing Roman ruins and the Vatican museums.

We will make the trip fit your purposes and your budget.

Explore part of Italy, the land that once was at the heart of one of the greatest empires of the world.

The focus of A level exams (eg AQA 3.1.5.3) includes the option of Hazards, of which Volcanic Italy provides many excellent examples. From Seismic to Volcanic hazards, visiting one or more of the volcanic areas in South Italy or its islands highlights both the physical characteristics of these volcanoes, their dangers and their positive and negative effects on the communities around them. These areas include the volcanoes of Vesuvius and Solfatara and impact on Herculaneum and Pompeii with implications for Naples; secondly Etna and Sicily, thirdly the islands of Vulcano and Stromboli.

Much of the following can be seen: the nature of vulcanicity and its relation to plate tectonics: forms of volcanic hazard: nuées ardentes, lava flows, mudflows, pyroclastic and ash fallout, gases, tephra. The spatial distribution, magnitude, frequency, regularity and predictability of hazard events. Impacts: primary/secondary, environmental, social, economic, political. Short and long-term responses: risk management designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation. Impacts and human responses as evidenced by a recent volcanic event in Sicily and less recent, Pompeii.